Under Armour: A Team and its Captain

By: Tyler Starr

There are very few companies that have grown as fast as Under Armour has in recent history. From C.E.O. Kevin Plank starting the company in his grandmother’s basement in 1995, He rapidly transformed his ideas for athletic wear into one of the biggest and most well-known brand names of the current generation. Since going public with the company in 2005 there has been a 900% growth in the company’s worth and they continue to be on the front lines of innovation in the sports world. The purpose of this case study is to look at the managerial structure that is used by Under Armour to keep the company growing at its current pace and how Plank uses Situational Leadership Theory to keep all of his employees motivated and happy about what they can do for the company.

Photo Credit: http://www.footwearonlineus.com

Situational Leadership Theory

Situational Leadership Theory plays a big role in how the company is run when it comes to Under Armour. Situational Leadership Theory states that there are four different types of leaders a person can be. The most appropriate style of leadership is based on your employees’ willingness and commitment (C.O.C., 2016). The first style of leadership is Directing. This style is used most when the employees have little ability to do the task at hand and also are not committed to getting it done. The leader has to walk them through the process and watch over them at all times. The second style is called Coaching (C.O.C., 2016). This style is used when your employees have a very high commitment to get the task done but they do not possess the ability to do it themselves. This style promotes much more two way communication within the organization and allows the employees to give ideas. The third style of leadership is called Supporting. This style is useful when your employees have the ability to do the job, but they do not have the drive or the commitment to the cause to do it (C.O.C., 2016). With this style, the leader allows the employees to complete the task without his help but he maintains consistent contact with them to make sure they follow the correct process and get the job done the right way. The fourth style of leadership is the Delegating style of leadership. With this style of leadership, the leader has trusted employees that not only have the ability to complete the tasks at hand, but they have the drive and commitment to take on the responsibility (C.O.C., 2016). This is the most fully developed style of leadership that allows for a business to begin to grow.

The next aspect of Situational Leadership Theory is the maturity level of the leader. This is rated on a scale of M1-M4 (Hersey, 2010). The level that a person receives on this scale will, in a way, dictate the stage that they can get to when it comes to style. The M1 level, is when a person cannot be held responsible for completing tasks on their own. They feel comfortable helping the group get things done but are not able to be trusted with their own tasks. The M2 level is when the initial period of learning is over and they are still unable to perform the skills that are necessary to complete the tasks at hand (Hersey, 2010). This level of maturity is still not responsible for the completion of tasks. M3 maturity is when a person can begin to climb into a position of authority within an organization (Hersey, 2010). This is the level where a person is finally experienced enough at their skill where they can be held responsible for completing tasks on their own and will do them. They do, however, still lack the willingness and confidence to take on big responsibilities. The final level of maturity, M4, is when a person has the experience, confidence and willingness to take responsibility for, and complete tasks all on their own (Hersey 2010).

The third aspect of Situational Leadership Theory is how well a leader can motivate his people based on their competence of the leaders goal and how committed they are to helping him achieve that goal. They can be low or high in either competence of the goal or commitment to the cause. Obviously a leader would like to see all of his people be high in both categories. If a leader has employees working for him that don’t fully understand what the goal of the organization is and they are not very committed to getting the job done, then there will be very little progress made on any kind of projects or decisions that are to be made. If the people of the organization are high in both of the categories then it takes a lot of the stress off of the leader to do a big portion of the work. His employees know what the mission is and they want to get the job done so they will take the responsibility to make sure it is done right (Hersey 2010).

Critical Analysis

When asked to think of a company that has continually been on the front lines of innovation in the sports world during my generation, Under Armour is one of, if not, the very first brand that comes to my mind. In 1996, based out of his grandmother’s garage, Kevin Plank revolutionized the way that athletic apparel was supposed to look and feel and, in a way, ushered in a new generation of sports technology (UA Inc, 2016). He was the Special Teams captain for the football team at the University of Maryland and he was getting extremely frustrated with the performance of his cotton t-shirt that he would be wearing under his pads. He knew that there had to be something that would work better. He came up with a moisture wicking compression shirt that would keep an athlete dryer, cooler, and lighter than any cotton t-shirt could. The innovative shirt was called #0037 and would one day be known as “Heat Gear”. In 1997, Plank made his first team sale and the business, and the idea, were off on a fast track for success (UA Inc, 2016).

In recent years the company has had success in almost any major sport that is played around the world. Their list of sponsored athletes that represent their brand includes some of the biggest names in American sports. Some of the names on this list include Tom Brady, Stephen Curry, Jordan Spieth, and Bryce Harper. They are also set to take over as the sponsor for all of the uniforms worn in Major League Baseball in the 2020 season when their current contract with Majestic apparel ceases to exist (Rovell, 2016). They are always looking for the next star to come up the ranks so they can add them to the, already impressive, Under Armour team.

When it comes down to the overall success and growth of Under Armour as a company, it can be linked back to the leadership and guidance of Kevin Plank. He has had a very solid plan of attack at how to keep the company at top of the industry and how to keep the company moving forward. He has a very unique style of leadership that involves lots of sports metaphors to keep the employees motivated to do the absolute best job that they can (Blazek, 2015). He says that have motivated and driven employees is the most important thing because you need drive to have the will to come up with good, new ideas all the time.

To keep communication open with his employees he has a board of nine directors that have weekly meetings to discuss all of the company related subjects that are important at that time (Board, 2016). The people on the board have almost just as much decision making ability as Plank himself. Each one of these directors then has another small group of employees that work for them. They have these same meetings with those people and on down the ranks. This gives employees of any rank the opportunity to share their ideas and have those ideas make it all the way to the top of the company (Board, 2016). To ensure that the decision of who is on the board of directors isn’t a bias choice, a group of employees that are not on the board vote to elect who will sit with Kevin Plank at the highest level of the company (J, 2012).

Plank says that he wanted to run his company like a big sports team (Blazek, 2015). Everyone playing their own respective role that allows the entire team to achieve greatness. The style in which he leads his company is shown in the ads for the brand. The first slogan that the company used was “Protect This House”. This was very symbolic in the way that it was done, using star players from his alma mater, Maryland University, as the actors. This advertisement showed that the company had its roots in Maryland, and more importantly America and that was where they wanted to continue to be an innovative brand.

Kevin Plank has shown that he is in the fourth level of all three aspects of Situational Leadership Theory. He has taken a delegation style of leadership when it comes to the way that the company is run and we see this by the structure of the management. This is shown with the board of nine directors that Plank talks to when making choices. He doesn’t directly communicate with the people multiple steps under him. Although, they still receive the information that the C.E.O. wants them to receive, they do not attend his meetings. Another way that we see the delegation style of leadership is in the way that his employees make decisions without always being watched over. They have shown that they have the ability to take on responsibilities on their own and they also have the motivation and commitment to get them done.

Plank also possesses level four managerial maturity. We know this because he began the company all on his own, from the ground up. Being employee number one has a big impact on his ability to complete tasks. He has shown that he can take the responsibility of any task that would be necessary to further the company and grow the name of the brand. The third category of Situational Leadership Theory is not as directly related to Kevin Plank, as much as his interview and employee selection process. He chose employees that, when hired, would perform tasks on their own that would benefit the company. This also shows in the way he puts employees in the best position for them to succeed. Things such as when he moved, already C.O.O. Kip Fulks into the head position of the footwear department on top of his current position (McNew, 2015). He had multiple innovative ideas in the footwear area and, after being put in a position where he could focus the majority of his time on footwear, the department saw a 50% increase in revenue during the next fiscal year (McNew, 2015).  To allow himself to properly perform in the delegation style of leadership and to have level four managerial maturity, his employees must have high commitment to the cause and a very high ability to take on major responsibilities.


Under Armour is an extremely innovative brand of sports apparel and equipment. They consistently stay on the front lines of innovation and are consistently coming out with the next big thing in the sports world. A large amount of their success can be attributed to the incredible leadership of C.E.O. and founder of the company, Kevin Plank. Through utilizing aspects of the Situational Leadership Theory, Plank has turned an idea that he had while in college into an absolutely revolutionary brand name across the globe. With the managerial structure that Plank has put in place, the brand should continue to stay on the front lines of innovation and be one of the biggest names in apparel.


Avtgis, T., Liberman, C., Rancer, A. (2012). Organizational Communication: Strategies for Success. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Blazek, K. (2015, September 15). Inspirational Leadership Style: Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.boothco.com/360-feedback-resources/inspirational-leadership-style-under-armour-ceo-kevin-plank/


Board, O. (2016, October 27). Org Chart Under Armour. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/under-armour


Charleston, C. O. (2016). The Situational Leadership Model – College of Charleston. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://greeks.cofc.edu/documents/The Situational Leadership Model.pdf


Hersey, P. (2010). Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.leadership-central.com/situational-leadership-theory.html#axzz4On8NZQtc


McNew, S. (2015, January 20). 3 Reasons to Love Under Armour Inc’s Management. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2015/01/20/3-reasons-to-love-under-armours-management.aspx


  1. (2012, April 27). Organizational Structure. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://internstratmgmt.blogspot.com/2012/04/organizational-structure.html


Rovell, D. (2016, October 17). Under Armour, Fanatics win MLB uniform deal. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.espn.com/mlb/story/_/id/17817780/under-armour-fanatics-supply-uniforms-mlb-2020


Under Armour, Inc. – Lead Director. (2016). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://investor.underarmour.com/director-lead.cfm


UA Performace. (2016). Under Armour, Inc. – History. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.uabiz.com/company/history.cfm








USAA: More Than Just Insurance

By: Tyler Starr



There are a lot of insurance companies throughout the country, and for the most parts they are all ran very similarly. USAA does not choose to conform to the rest of those insurance companies. In this case study we will look at the way that USAA trains their employees to handle and deal with the unique wants and needs of their clients. At more than 13,000 employees they have quite a large workforce (McGregor, 2005). They have a different clientele than most, since they work with former and current members of the US military.

Photo Credit http://www.volvoofcorvallis.com 

Organizational Culture

The USSA Standard is the main set of goals that they want their employees to operate under (USAA, 2015). The first of these six goals is to keep their membership and their mission first. This means that the biggest factor when making a decision should always be what is best for the member and the mission of the company, not themselves. The second and third goals go hand in hand with their four values of service, loyalty, honesty and integrity, followed by their will to build trust with the members. If the members can fully trust the employees investing their money then they will have a much stronger relationship with the employees. The fourth, fifth, and sixth goals can be summed up by saying that they want their employees to always be looking for improvements (USAA, 2015). Whether that is adapting to a change in their customer’s needs and modifying their tactics or just being innovative for the company. Just like any large corporation, USAA is always looking for the next best thing.

The USAA standard follows the relationship-based perspective of ethical decision making. This is because the choices that the employees make are to help develop a stronger bond and relationship with the members. Having strong employee to member relationships within the company is something that USAA holds very highly and it has helped them to be as successful as they are. Each one of their members has very different needs than the next so knowing the member well is an important aspect of their policy. If the policy needs to change in a short amount of time the employee will be ready to make the adjustment.

The training that goes into becoming a USAA employee is vastly different than the training of almost any other company. The employees are put through a boot camp for 10 weeks to give them a little bit of a look into what some of their customers go through being in the military (Fleurke, 2009). They do everything from wearing ten pounds of gear to eating MRE’s for lunch. They are also put through a normal PT workout that includes pushups, sit-ups, and running (Shevory, 2014). This is to give the employees an idea of where their members are coming from. This helps the employees to make the right decisions for the members because they gain an added understanding of where the members are coming from and what their specific needs are.

Critical Analysis

Working at a golf course on the grounds crew is a job that I have worked at previously that, like USAA, has a very specific group of people to work for. The people that you are trying to satisfy are the members of the golf course and your mission is to make their experience on the course as nice as possible. The four ethical standards that I would put in place at the golf course would be to always put the members’ wants before your own, always treat any member like they are your superior, always conduct your job in the most respectful way possible, and to build relationships with the members of the course that will last a lifetime.

I would instill these 4 ethical standards in training by making sure that the employees knew who a lot of the members of the course were before they were sent out on solo jobs around the course. I would also make sure everyone has proper training on any job that a member of the course could ask them to do and not just the job that they are sent out on. Finally, I would train every employee the absolute best way to do each job on the course so they would make the smallest mess that they could. With those standards put in place, the relationship between the members and the grounds crew would greatly improve. The course would be run a lot smoother than it is today.


Fleurke, X. (2009, January). Walking a Mile in the Shoes of Your Customer. Retrieved from http://www.corporate-ethics.org/walking-a-mile-in-the-shoes-of-your-customer/

McGregor, J. (2005, October 1). Employee Innovator: USAA. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/53782/employee-innovator-usaa

Shevory, K. (2014, September 1). Boot Camp for Bankers. Retrieved from http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/09/01/boot-camp-for-bankers/

USAA. (2015). The USAA Standard. Retrieved from https://www.usaajobs.com/docs/USAA-Standard.pdf



Not for Children: The Netflix Culture

By: Tyler Starr


Different companies have completely different styles of management in an effort to give them a slight advantage over their competition. Certain companies have management styles that stick out more from conventional than others. In this case study we will look at Netflix and how they have taken a “mature” approach to finding their employees. When it comes to the people that help the movie streaming company run in the fashion that they do, they would like fully grown adults assuming those positions (McCord, 2016).



Photo credit: LifeHacker.com

Netflix divides the aspects that they would like to control their organization’s culture into seven different parts. The first part of their culture is that their values are what they value (Hastings, 2009). This means they really like to have employees that will act in good faith, for the best interest of the company. They know that their people aren’t going to do anything shady or illegal when it comes to furthering the company or themselves. Employees are also open about how they operate and frequently communicate with other employees. The next aspect of the culture at Netflix is high performance (Hastings, 2009).  This refers to the high expectations that they hold within each position of the company. Leaders within Netflix will try to mold employees into the most productive individual that they can be to try and further the company. This also means making strict cuts to ensure they don’t have a mass of unproductive employees working in their organization. The third aspect that they hold dearly to their culture is freedom and responsibility within the workplace (Hastings, 2009). With this aspect, they give their employees a lot of freedom to create the working atmosphere that they would like for themselves. This includes not having a set amount of hours an employee is required to work each week and also not regulating the set amount of hours of vacation that employees may take each year. With this freedom comes great responsibility to do what they need to do instead of what they want to do. Things like finding things to work on even when they haven’t been instructed to do so are very important. Fourth on the list of their cultural aspects is that they believe in context, not control (Hastings, 2009). With this value, they focus on making sure there isn’t one person that is making all of the major decisions. The work is all evenly divided up and everybody knows the role that comes with their position. This allows everybody to specialize in the subjects that they are best in. The fifth aspect of Netflix culture is that they keep their employees highly aligned but very loosely coupled (Hastings, 2009). This is to make sure that every employee knows what the ultimate goal is in the end. The important thing to the people high up in Netflix is that everybody has the same goals. How they use what they have to get there doesn’t matter to the upper management as long as the end game is where it is supposed to be. Sixth on Netflix’s list of cultural aspects is that they make sure to pay the top of the market (Hastings, 2009). This is a simple concept, where they want to find the absolute best employees possible for the task at hand and they will pay them pretty much anything they need to, within reason, to keep that employee on staff. This is kind of like professional sports when a player is very good, his team will match almost any other offer to keep them a member of the current organization. The final aspect of the culture within the Netflix organization is how they handle promotions and development (Hastings, 2009). They like to hire from within their company to ensure the people that take over the higher positions in their company already fit in with what they are trying to do. This also promotes motivation in employees in lower positions because they know that there is a possibility they will be promoted in the near future.


When all of these aspects come together the only way that the company can go is up! If everyone is truly as responsible and efficient as Netflix would like them to be, the company will prosper. This success would lead to other elite people wanting to work there and they would only continue to grow within their own policy (McCord, 2016). The fact that they make cuts to their employee body means that even though one task is handled well they have to stay on top of their game or they will be swiftly let go.


I have worked at multiple different jobs and have yet to see an organization fully encompass what Netflix is doing. Working on a grounds crew of a golf course is probably as close as I have gotten to working in this environment due to the fact that everybody was kind of on their own to complete their job when they were out on the course and we were expected to do anything possible to make sure that the course looked perfect. Even if this meant taking over someone else’s task to make sure it got done in the correct amount of time. That was the most freedom that I have encountered in the workforce to this point.


I feel like working in the conditions that a Netflix worker does, would make me a much more efficient worker. Knowing that I was being watched from a productivity standpoint and could easily be promoted or even let go would really motivate me to go above and beyond even my own expectations.


McCord, P. (2016). How Netflix Reinvented HR. Retrieved October 07, 2016, from https://hbr.org/2014/01/how-netflix-reinvented-hr


Hastings, Working   Keynote Author Follow, R. (2009, August 01). Seven Aspects of our Culture. Retrieved October 07, 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net/reed2001/culture-1798664/3-Seven_Aspects_of_our_Culture


Google: Chasing Perfection

By: Tyler Starr

 Many of the greatest decisions in the history of mankind have been decided upon by groups of people all working together for the greater good. There is, undeniably, a lot more knowledge in the minds of multiple people than in just one person. The idea of working in a group, or team, setting is that the members of the group will be able to “put their heads together” and combine all of their knowledge. This will create new ideas that would originally never been possible to think of. When it comes to what makes one group of people more effective than another, it is vital to companies to put their employees’ minds together in the most productive way possible. What makes a group productive? Well the company Google

Photo Credit: www.wired.com


was determined that they would figure out how to construct the perfect group. This case study will look at what they called The Aristotle Project, and how they went about looking at what makes a group efficient.

A company that is always on the cutting edge of technology like Google is always looking for the next big innovation that will help them to be even more successful than they already are (National Geographic 2012). They developed a study called the Aristotle Project that would allow them to measure different aspects that certain groups of people excelled at and others would fail at (Duhigg 2016). They looked at a lot of different work groups, both good and bad, to see if they could find any patterns in what the good groups had in common to make them stand out from the others.

When they looked at their results, they couldn’t find any certain patterns within the groups that made them good or bad groups when it came to the physical makeup of the group. With a company like Google they are usually phenomenal when it comes to finding patterns in things so they were truly surprised when nothing stuck out as different in all of the groups they considered to be good. They were going to have to take a different route of thinking about the makeup of a group outside of just the people that were involved in it (Duhigg 2016).

They ended up finding out that it was not the people that made up the group that determined to productivity of the group but, instead, the way that the people in the group interacted when they were in a meeting. They saw that groups needed to have a lot of psychological safety. This means that the members of a group need to feel completely safe with expressing their opinions at any time. If the people in the group feel like they can completely open up and say anything without being judged then the group will flow a lot better and be more productive. Another key component to a group’s success is that everybody gives input on a topic. It is important to hear what everyone has to say about every topic that the group is discussing.

This means that when a person is forming a group they need to make sure they put people in the group that all have different strengths but you don’t want to put a really overbearing person into the group. Good people to put into a group together are people that will let each other speak in the group setting without passing judgement on one another and will allow each other to all express their opinions. It is important that the members of a group understand their group’s needs (re: Work, 2016).

This study would definitely have an influence on the kind of people that I would choose if I had to put a group together in the future. Before I had read about this study y first choice of personnel would have been a boisterous leader that I knew would have taken charge and given people assignments. Now I would stray away from that type of person and focus on people that I think would get along with each other better and feel more comfortable accepting roles  with each other. This will be something that I could immediately put to use in my studies here at Ashland University.


re: Work. (2016). Guide: Understand Team Effectiveness. Retrieved from  https://rework.withgoogle.com/guides/understanding-team-effectiveness/steps/introduction/

Duhigg, C. (2016, February 25). What Google Learned From Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/magazine/what-google-learned-from-its-quest-to-build-the-perfect-team.html?_r=0

National Geographic. (2012). Inside Google. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/55885729

Holocracy: A New Look for Zappos

by Tyler Starr

There are many styles of management that people use to run companies. With so much competition between corporations in the current market, businesses will do anything that they can to get a slight edge over their competitors. There are some companies that are moving to a new style of management known as holocracy. Like anything, there are pros and cons to moving to this style of management and Zappos went all in when it came to switching to holocracy.

The holocracy style of management is a way of getting rid of the traditional chain of command where there is an ultimate decision maker that will have the absolute final choice about what happens to the company. This also means that even if someone has an idea that they would like to try they have to run it passed others within the group before it can be put into use. The others in the group have to be on board with the idea as well. This system completely does away with the position of a manager and all employees must be ready to give their input on the things that are going on. If they don’t serve a purpose or help out with the tasks at hand within their group then they are not needed and could be let go. Holocracy allows for all of its people to assume a managerial role from time to time and lead certain projects. Any employee could set the agenda for a meeting if they feel that it is a necessary item to be discussed.

Zappos adopted this style of management because the man in charge, Tony Hsieh, wanted to change things up and take a new approach to the way that the company was run. Hopocracy was something that hadn’t been done very much in the past and it would be a complete overhaul to the company’s current situation. As always, when there is a drastic change of that magnitude, the results are going to be just as drastic as the change. Whether that would be for the better or for the worse is the problem at hand when trying to make such a choice about how your company is run.

Hopocracy, just like any other style of management in the workplace, has its advantages and its disadvantages. One of the advantages that hopocracy holds is that it gives lower level employees that usually give little to no input into projects or situations the chance to present what they would like to say. This is good because you never know what kind of ideas or plans somebody might have been keeping to themselves because they weren’t in a position that allowed them to feel comfortable expressing themselves to the rest of their coworkers. Now that they have the same amount of authority as the rest of their fellow employees they will feel much more comfortable putting themselves out there in front of everybody.

With the good side of switching to hopocracy, comes the bad side. It is going to take longer to get ideas put into motion with this plan because even if the idea is amazing it has to be passed through the process of talking about it to your group and that takes a longer time than if somebody in a management position were to just assign people to getting their job done. Another drawback of switching to a hopocratic work environment from a traditional hierarchy is that there are going to people who have worked a long career to achieve a management position. When the switch occurs, these people will be, in a way, demoted back to a much more equal level as the rest of the employees. Although they will probably emerge as some of the best group leaders when the hopocracy is in full swing, they will have lost a lot of their authority.

Gelles, D. (2015, July 17). At Zappos, Pushing Shoes and a Vision. Retrieved September 21, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/19/business/at-zappos-selling-shoes-and-a-vision.html?_r=1

How It Works. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2016, from http://www.holacracy.org/how-it-works/

Markman, A. (2016). The Unseen Consequences Of Hypocritical Leadership. Retrieved September 23, 2016, from https://www.fastcompany.com/3060838/do-leaders-have-anything-to-gain-by-being-hypocritical 

Reingold, J. (2016, March 4). How a Radical Shift Left Zappos Reeling. Retrieved September 21, 2016, fromhttp://fortune.com/zappos-tony-hsieh-holacracy

Tyler Starr

pictureTyler Starr is a double major in Public Relations/Strategic communication and Sport Communication. He is in his junior year of the program at Ashland University.

He intends to apply for an internship in the summer of 2017 with a sports team or athletic apparel brand. This would allow him to pursue his passion in the constantly growing world of sports.

Tyler is an active member on the Men’s golf team at Ashland University and he also avidly participated in an assortment of intramural sports at AU. He belongs to the Sport Communication club that is involved in things around campus such as the football kickoff pep rally and fundraiser sporting events like goal ball and dodgeball.

Tyler has previously been employed at several different places. He has worked on the grounds crew of Sycamore Springs Golf Club where he did landscaping work and tree removal. He was a Golf department manager at Dick’s Sporting Goods where he was the leading Salesman of the golf department, built golf clubs and fit people for clubs. Another place of employment for Tyler was Tower International Automotive where he was a grade 3 welding technician for automotive companies including Ford, Nissan, and BMW. His most recent place of employment was Ball Metal Container Corporation where he was an operator and sorter on the can line. He made sure the beer cans made it safely onto their packaging and checked for any quality problems to the customer.

Tyler’s ultimate goal in life would be to end up with a career in the world of sports in the communications department of the USGA. He would want to be on the committee of people that discuss the layout and distribution of materials such as new rules and golf events. This would also include their relation with the PGA and European Tour.